The problems of evolution, climate, ecology, global monitoring and remote sensing of Earth are considered as a radiation factor in the interest of World Global Research Projects “Future Earth”. The problems are investigated as related on the basis of radiation transfer theory regarding scattering and absorption of solar and native radiation. The term “Global system”, implemented by N.N. Moiseev, was introduced in theoretical and applied research in the Earth sciences: analysis and synthesis of knowledge about the development of planetary civilization are required. The problem of adequate assessment of the role and authority of simulated subsystems in the long-term evolution of the entire “Global system”, including those related to the Earth radiation field, is of particular importance. The Earth radiation field is a uniform physical field (electromagnetic radiation) and a unifying factor of the Earth dynamic system. Models for accounting of exchange and separation of atmospheric and ocean radiation contributions have been developed. According to experts, the radiation factor of influence on the Earth climate system is from 40 % to 60 %. R.I. Nigmatulin proposed a hypothesis: “Ocean — the dictator of climate”. Н 2 О and СО 2, cloud cover and ocean are the main competing factors of radiation forcing. To study the radiation factor of the World Ocean influence on climate change and evolution of the Earth, international cooperation is required with the use of integrated systems for observing radiation processes under water, on water and from space with the support of supercomputer modeling and big data.