Latonin M.M., Bashmachnikov I.L., Bobylev L.P.

This paper presents a research synthesis of one of the essential features of the global climate system — Arctic amplification: a higher rate of change of surface air temperature in the Arctic region compared to that of the Northern Hemisphere or global average. Arctic amplification is a regional manifestation of the more common phenomenon — Polar amplification. However, Antarctic amplification is significantly weaker than the Arctic one. The major mechanisms defining the Arctic amplification are various climate feedbacks, operating differently at different latitudes, and a poleward heat transport induced by the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. The state-of-the-art scientific results have mostly demonstrated a relative role of different climate feedbacks in forming the Arctic amplification. From the more important to the less important ones, these are the lapse rate, Planck and surface albedo feedbacks. However, several other possible mechanisms are remained poorly studied. In particular, the contribution from the time varying meridional heat transport is quite unclear. Moreover, meridional advection of heat by the atmosphere and ocean can play a significant role in the observed variations of the intensity of the Arctic amplification at
different time scales.

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