The professional tool’s investigations of climate in the world began relatively recently. Since the second half of the XIX century Russia was one of the meteorological investigation’s leaders. Study of the history of meteorology in the Russian Far East and in China, systematization, and analysis of research results would be a great contribution to a better understanding of the importance of Russian research in the development of meteorology. The article discusses about the background of the creation of the observatory in Vladivostok. The author analyzed the chain of political and scientific decisions about the transfer of the magnetic and meteorological observatory of the Academy of Sciences from Beijing, through the plans of the creation an observatory in Port Arthur to the construction of an observatory in Vladivostok. In addition, the observatory’s budget and plans for its equipment are considered. Such materials are usually not the subject of close attention of researchers. In the historiography lacks an investigation about the role of the Russian Academy of Sciences to the development of a network of magnetic meteorological stations and observatories in the Russian Far East and in adjacent territories (Korea, China). The author introduced into scientific circulation new archival data from the Russian State Archive of the Navy and the St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of the Academy of Sciences.