I. S. Zakharov, I. V. Aleshin

Approach in the hydrosphere ecotoxicological control – microscale biotests with small organisms and volumes of probes is analysed in the review. The approach more economical than bioassay with fish and plants, but problems of
biotests replacement on micro biotests and differencies between tests for natural water and drink water or ffluents are discussed in review. Tests with objects of different phylogenetic levels and measuring methods of their endpoints, which are analised. Their diversity makes it possible to control different objects of biosphere and many harmful factors of natural water pollution: pesticides, heavy metals, oil, detergents and others. Attention is drawn to identification of harmful pollution and detection their harmful propertyes: acute, chronic toxicity, phyto-, geno-, embriotoxicity. Description of tests are illustrated by schemes, which explains principals for solve task of detection harmful factors in environment. Problems of biotechnology and their influence on assessment of bioassay are briefly discussed.. Given that journal is not only biological, in the review are more demonstrated applications of microbiotests for ecotoxicological control of natural waters. The review covers the literature from the beginning of the 1990s until 2013.

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