Klyachko M. A.
A History of the tsunami safety problem on the sea coasts of Russia and of tsunami design code development are described. The code “Buildings and structures on tsunami hazardous areas. Regulations of design” is developed by the working group of “Regional Alliance for Disaster Analysis & Reduction” NPO on behalf of the President of the Russian Federation 18.05.2015 and appropriate decisions of the Government Russia from 28.09.2015 and from 04.08.2016. The Code consists of 12 chapters and 7 appendices. The code of rules developed for the first time should be applied when designing new construction and reconstruction of existing on-shore and Marinas buildings and structures in order to ensure their normalized reliability and safety under tsunami impact. The new basic terms and definitions that are unified and aligned with the terminology used by oceanographers, civil engineers and specialists of EMERCOM are introduced. Conceptual approaches, conditions, assumptions and understandings adopted as basic are given. Much attention is paid to the requirements imposed on the initial data, which is necessary for design, and especially, to assign tsunami hazard, which can be performed in various ways. The tsunami hazardous areas are classified by the intensity of the estimated tsunami, proximity to the tsunamigenic earthquake focus, the possibility of evacuating people and other parameters. Constructed facilities are subdivided according to their significance for life support and emergency management. Analytical calculation and design of tsunami resistance and the serviceability of only certain buildings and structures (life facilities, objects — sources of secondary danger, difficultly evacuated objects, etc.) are necessary and described in detail. It is emphasized that the main task of tsunami safety is to minimize individual risk, i.e. risk associated with the life and health of people. Thus, tsunami hazardous area as a whole (not single building) is a key object of standardization. Urban planning and engineering aspects for the tsunami disaster reduction are presented. The methodology, tools and mathematical apparatus for analysis and control of tsunami-risk, well-tested previously to ensure seismic safety, were used in the code of rules. The conclusion provides an overview of the results, criticisms and suggestions for further research.