The issue contains the discussions of modeling of the ocean dynamics and marine ecosystems, the results of natural oceanologic experiments as well as applied problems of hydrophysics. Based on 3D-numerical modeling the interaction of the surface semidiurnal tides in the Barents and Kara Seas is studied. The estimates of CO2 flux between the atmosphere and the sea obtained by the ecosystem model of the Barents Sea are given. The coefficients of horizontal turbulent viscosity are calculated on the basis of an increased flow velocity measurement data performed in the heavy areas of the White Sea. The dependence of internal wave images structure on the character the attenuation coefficient stratification is analyzed. The review of practical applications of hydroacoustics which are based on use of the algorithms coordinated with the environment of their distribution is given. The algorithm for solving inverse problems of restoring the vertical sound speed distribution from ship probing acoustic sound diffusers in natural water environment is considered. The division of the World Ocean into parts depending on specifics of zones of spreading to increase the saturation of the Earth’s magnetic field by navigational landmarks is discussed.
The issue contains scientific papers of young oceanologists, generally selected by the results of the Competition of scientific works of students, graduate students and young scientists of St.-Petersburg and the North-West of the Russian Federation in the field of oceanology in 2016. The competition is held by the St.-Petersburg branch of Institute of Oceanology of P. P. Shirshov of RAS with the assistance of Scientific Council on problems of fundamental and applied hydrophysics of St.-Petersburg Scientific Center RAS annually since 2013 for the purpose of involve youth for research activities for problems of oceans and seas study. The papers show the results received on the base of numerical modeling and during the natural experiments in various fields of hydrophysics are analyzed, techniques of forecasting and data processing of measurements of hydrophysical fields are discussed. The issue also contains papers showing the results of natural experiments on studying of hydrodynamical, geomorphological and hydroacoustical conditions in the Japan Sea.
The present issue is devoted to the vital problem of tsunami impact on the coast and constructions and the development of relevant regulatory documents. The appearance of such documents is conditioned by the orders of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation. At present, the Design Code «Buildings and constructions in tsunami-prone district. Construction rules», approved by the Construction Ministry of Russia, has been already worked out. The issue includes articles demonstrating tsunami danger assessment. The history of tsunami-safety rationing problem of the Russian sea coasts affected by tsunamis is given. The structure of Design Code «Buildings and constructions in tsunami-prone districts. Construction rules» is presented. Different methods and approaches used in Russia and abroad to map tsunami hazard are discussed. The data quality influence of the seabed relief on the numerical model ability of tsunami propagation which can reproduce the maximum wave height propagation along the coast adequately is estimated. The engineering analysis of tsunami impact on coasts and constructions is given on the example of the Indonesian (2004) and Japanese (2011) tsunamis. The erosion processes in the seabed under the tsunami wave action are calculated. The problems of laboratory and numerical tsunami wave modeling as well as tsunami wave generating methods in experiments are discussed. The dynamic effect due to the construction compliance of the sea wave movement is described as well. This issue is dedicated to the fundamental and engineering aspects of protecting buildings and constructions against tsunami waves. It is the first one published in Russian, and we hope that it will prove useful for a wide range of readers.
The present issue of ‘Fundmentlnaya i Prikladnaya Gidrofizika (Fundamental and Applied Hydrophysics)’ is the continuation of the special issue ‘Tsunami impact on the coast and constructions’. The articles in the present issue are written with the participation of the authors of the recently approved Code of Rules ‘BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS IN TSUNAMI-PRONE DISTRICTS. CONSTRUCTION RULES’. This issue includes five articles covering engineering approaches to calculating tsunami impact on buildings and constructions. In the given issue the mathematical models describing the interaction of long waves with various obstacles are presented, the results of laboratory experiments of the wave field transformation process near barriers are given and empirical formulas for load calculation are discussed. The important problem of tsunami wave impact on soil erosion at the bases of hydraulic constructions is touched upon. This special issue also includes an article on the internal wave effect on the offshore-platform bearings. The present issue and Issue #3, 2017 are the first ones published in Russia, which are dedicated to the fundamental and engineering aspects of protecting hydraulic constructions against tsunami waves, and we hope that it will prove useful for a wide range of readers.