The results of studies of distant fields of wave disturbances on the surface of a heavy fluid from a fast-moving oscillating source are presented. A method is developed for the numerical solution of the equation for the spreading of an oil spill on the sea surface, which correctly describes the movement of the contact boundary of the spill. The estimates of the variability of the characteristics of the sea surface temperature in the frontal zones of the Kara Sea from July to September in 2007 and 2011 are obtained. Based on a statistical analysis of data from measurements of short-period internal waves in the deep-water region of the Barents Sea, it is shown that in the range of 20—60 min there is a synchronous relationship between temperature and light attenuation coefficient with coherence above 0.9. The principles of formation and achievable parameters of high-speed radar images of the sea surface obtained from stationary, aviation and space carriers are considered. Based on observational data during the period of early-spring under-ice convection development in Lake Vendyurskoe, the dynamics of the mixed layer is described and its integral parameters are estimated. In the framework of a brief review of the state of knowledge about the study of hydrophysical processes and ecosystems of large lakes and the White Sea is argued that the resources and capacities of various organizations need to be united to arrange integrated experiments and build models for dealing with the tasks of the rational management of internal waters. Based on the solution of the problem of changes in the regional climate of the Kara Sea, it is shown that the contributions of tidal changes in sea temperature and level to their formation turn out to be significant, and the contribution of tidal changes in salinity is considerable. In the framework of a systematic review of the major milestones in the development of ocean hydrophysics, the names of the leading figures of Russian science, who created its foundations and scientific schools that have been active for many decades and have had world-class achievements in their work, are named.