Without taking into account the real characteristic of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean, it is impossible to successfully develop both the modeling of atmospheric circulation and the dynamics of the marine environment, and the methods of long-range and extra-range forecasting of weather and climate created on this basis. Therefore, the study of the interaction between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere is becoming increasingly necessary for understanding the nature of the processes occurring on our planet and for the further development of the sciences of hydrology, meteorology and oceanology. The special issue of the journal “Fundamental and Applied Hydrophysics” is devoted to various aspects of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean – from wave processes on the surface to large – scale phenomena.
The special issue is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding scientist, the first head of the St. Petersburg Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Academy of Science Sergei Sergeevich Zilitinkevich (1935—2021) and opens with an article about his scientific achievements and life path. A series of articles presents various aspects of the study of wave processes at the boundary between the atmosphere and the ocean – from modeling to experimental studies and remote sensing. A number of articles are devoted to large-scale processes of interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean. The materials of publications may be of interest to specialists, students and graduate students of hydrometeorological specialties.
The ray equations of Hamilton are analytically integrated for Rossby waves on a shear flow and it is shown that the Rossby wave tracks for a non-zonal flow are strongly anisotropic. The possibility of physical modeling of the state of the ice cover under the influence of a moving load is investigated, using the equation of oscillations of an elastic plate, the theory of the ice cover by Nogid-Shimansky and thin ice models. It is shown that the use of high-order schemes in space and time makes it possible to improve the accuracy of modeling free oscillations of a cylinder on a water surface. An original approach is proposed for determining the exact time of the onset of tropical cyclogenesis, which corresponds to specific configurations of vortical cloud convection. Using an ocean and sea ice model for the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, it is shown that the increase in temperature and transport of Pacific waters after 2003 contributed to an increase in the heat content of waters, a reduction in area and a delay in the formation of ice. A new three-dimensional model of biogeochemical nutrient cycling has been successfully used to reconstruct the interannual dynamics of the Lake Onega ecosystem over three decades of the current period. The features of the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem components and biogeochemical fluxes are revealed, including the fact that the spring bloom of phytoplankton, caused by an increase in the availability of light, is about half of the annual primary production of Lake Onega. The results of numerical experiments to assess the hydrodynamic regime of the eastern part of the Sevastopol Bay and the South Bay were used to analyze the self-cleaning ability of the ecosystems of these water areas and assess their assimilation capacity. According to hydro-optical surveys in the northern part of the Black Sea in 2016—2020, the features of the spatial structure of the total suspended matter were refined and their relationship with the distributions of temperature, salinity, and water density was assessed. Based on the model results, the distribution of bottom sediments in the water area of the Kuibyshev Reservoir was studied and maps of accumulation and erosion of the bed in different phases of water content were constructed. An overview of the role of the Academy of Sciences in the development of a network of magnetic-meteorological stations and observatories in the Russian Far East and adjacent territories (Korea, China) is given.
The special issue includes the articles based on the most interesting reports presented at the XI International Сonference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW’2021). The conference was dedicated to the memory of the outstanding scientist Oleg Viktorovich Kopelevich (1940–2020), whose entire creative life was connected with the development of ocean optics. The issue opens with an article that presents a brief scientific biography of O.V. Kopelevich and a review of the most important results obtained by him. Other articles in this issue are devoted to various aspects of the development of hydrooptics. They present the results of theoretical and in situ experimental studies concerning the formation of light fields in the sea from natural and artificial sources and are directly related to the problem of remote sensing. The mechanism of formation of strong forward peaked part of the marine indicatrix has been theoretically investigated. The results of lidar sensing of internal waves in the sea are presented. The problem of the visibility of underwater objects observed from the atmosphere is discussed. A spectrophotometer of an original design for measuring the brightness of the sea with increased accuracy is described. A number of articles in this issue are devoted to describing the results of “regional” studies that are important for interpreting satellite measurements, verifying and refining regional satellite algorithms for reconstructing optical characteristics. These articles discuss various aspects of the formation of the optical characteristics of waters and the light regime in the coastal seas and in the Atlantic. The materials presented in this issue may be of interest to specialists, graduate students and students who have devoted themselves to research in the field of atmospheric and oceanic physics.
The issue presents the research results for hydrophysical processes and phenomena in the sea using remote sensing. The hydroacoustic problems are considered, several articles are devoted to land hydrology. The algorithm is proposed, which was formulated within the framework of the Korteweg-de Vries equation for estimating the vertical displacements of isopycn and horizontal current velocities caused by internal tidal borings from their manifestations in the roughness field on satellite images of the Banda Sea. The estimates of the relation between the characteristics of the frontal zone and the volume of river discharge, ice cover and wind parameters, as well as the value of the atmospheric indices of the Scandinavian oscillation are obtained. The analysis of long-term seasonal changes in the concentration of chlorophyll a, the maximum rate of phytoplankton photosynthesis and water temperature in the surface layer of the open waters Black Sea from 1998 to 2015 is carried out. The influence of water dynamics on the spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity in the surface layer of the Barents and Norwegian Seas, obtained during the cruise of the research vessel using the flow-through measuring complex in August 2020, is demonstrated. The results of a laboratory experiment simulating the mechanisms of a surfactant film localization under the action of periodic surface waves are presented. The presence of the additional mechanism of noise signal modulation formation at the ship rolling and pitching, caused by the phenomenon of fluctuating interference of the beams propagating from vertically dipping underwater point source near the water surface is found. Estimates of methane emission from the Mozhaysk Reservoir surface were carried out using the mathematical model LAKE 2.3. Based on the complex of hydrodynamic and lithodynamic models the assessment of the impact of port facilities on the processes of coastal erosion/accumulations in the area of Gelendzhik Bay (Black Sea) is made. A variant of choosing the optimal solution of navigation problem on the Volga River based on the integrated use of results of numerical modeling of hydrodynamic processes, expert environmental assessments and rating economic comparison is proposed. An analysis of the leveling catalog data by Friedrich Wilhelm Bauer (1979) showed that the values in it are given in French linear measure (and not in English, as previously thought). Thus, the version is confirmed that the maximum height of the rise of water in the flood of the Neva on September 10 (21), 1777 reached a value of 333 cm.